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Activated carbon absorbs volatile organic compounds from ground water by chemically binding them to the carbon atoms. In this process, called In Situ Chemical Oxidation or ISCO, chemical oxidants are delivered in the subsurface to destroy converted to water and carbon dioxide or to nontoxic substances the organics molecules. The oxidants are introduced as either liquids or gasses. Oxidants include air or oxygen, ozone , and certain liquid chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide , permanganate and persulfate.

Ozone and oxygen gas can be generated on site from air and electricity and directly injected into soil and groundwater contamination.


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Chemical oxidation has proven to be an effective technique for dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL when it is present. Surfactant enhanced recovery increases the mobility and solubility of the contaminants absorbed to the saturated soil matrix or present as dense non-aqueous phase liquid. Surfactant-enhanced recovery injects surfactants surface-active agents that are primary ingredient in soap and detergent into contaminated groundwater. A typical system uses an extraction pump to remove groundwater downstream from the injection point. The extracted groundwater is treated aboveground to separate the injected surfactants from the contaminants and groundwater.

Once the surfactants have separated from the groundwater they are re-used. The surfactants used are non-toxic, food-grade, and biodegradable. Surfactant enhanced recovery is used most often when the groundwater is contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids DNAPLs. These dense compounds, such as trichloroethylene TCE , sink in groundwater because they have a higher density than water. They then act as a continuous source for contaminant plumes that can stretch for miles within an aquifer.

These compounds may biodegrade very slowly. They are commonly found in the vicinity of the original spill or leak where capillary forces have trapped them. Pump and treat is one of the most widely used ground water remediation technologies. In this process ground water is pumped to the surface and is coupled with either biological or chemical treatments to remove the impurities. Air sparging is the process of blowing air directly into the ground water.

As the bubbles rise, the contaminants are removed from the groundwater by physical contact with the air i. As the contaminants move into the soil, a soil vapor extraction system is usually used to remove vapors.

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Dual-phase vacuum extraction DPVE , also known as multi-phase extraction, is a technology that uses a high-vacuum system to remove both contaminated groundwater and soil vapor. In DPVE systems, a high-vacuum extraction well is installed with its screened section in the zone of contaminated soils and groundwater. DPVE removes contaminants from above and below the water table. As the water table around the well is lowered from pumping, unsaturated soil is exposed. This area, called the capillary fringe , is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are lighter than water, and vapors that have escaped from the dissolved groundwater below.

Contaminants in the newly exposed zone can be removed by vapor extraction. Once above ground, the extracted vapors and liquid-phase organics and groundwater are separated and treated. Use of dual-phase vacuum extraction with these technologies can shorten the cleanup time at a site, because the capillary fringe is often the most contaminated area. Monitoring-wells are often drilled for the purpose of collecting ground water samples for analysis. These wells, which are usually six inches or less in diameter, can also be used to remove hydrocarbons from the contaminant plume within a groundwater aquifer by using a belt-style oil skimmer.

Belt oil skimmers, which are simple in design, are commonly used to remove oil and other floating hydrocarbon contaminants from industrial water systems. Once the bulb is full, the fluid will flow without further effort from the higher to the lower container. Many hand pumps will allow the passage of fluid through them in the direction of flow and diaphragm pumps are particularly good at this.

Thus where the levels are correct large volumes of liquid such as swimming pools can be emptied with very little effort and no expensive energy use. A chain pump is made of an endless chain carrying a series of discs that descend into the water, and then ascend inside a tube, carrying with them a large quantity of water. They are a simply made, old hand-powered pumping technology [10] In the 18th century they were used as ship's bilge pumps.

Direct action hand pumps have a pumping rod that is moved up and down, directly by the user, discharging water. Direct action handpumps are easy to install and maintain but are limited to the maximum column of water a person can physically lift of up to 15 m. Examples of direct action pumps include the canzee pump [12] and the EMAS pump.

Deep well hand pumps are used for high lifts of more than 15 m.

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The weight of the column of water is too great to be lifted directly and some form of mechanical advantage system such as a lever or flywheel is used. High lift pumps need to be stronger and sturdier to cope with the extra stresses. The installation, maintenance and repair of deep well hand pumps is more complicated than with other hand pumps. A deep well hand pump theoretically has no limit to which it can extract water.

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In practice, the depth is limited by the physical power a human being can exert in lifting the column of water, which is around 80 m. Diaphragm pumps have the advantage that they pump relatively lightly due to the lack of pulling rods and are corrosion resistant. Their disadvantage is that they need a specific length of tubing and high quality rubber diaphragms, which are costly and are relatively inefficient due to the extra work needed to deform the diaphragm.

Rubber diaphragms will eventually leak and need to be replaced. Because this is usually complicated and costly, diaphragm pumps operating in poor rural areas are often abandoned once the diaphragm wears out. Progressive cavity pumps consist of a single helix rotor inserted into a double helix stator. As the rotor is turned, the voids in the stator are screwed upwards along the axis of rotation.

Progressive cavity pumps can have complicated gearing mechanisms and are difficult for local pump technicians to maintain and repair. The range of lift of different types of hand pumps is given below: [14] [15]. In November , the United Nations Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights asserted that access to clean, safe water goes beyond the classification of water as an economic commodity. The committee stressed the fundamental right of sufficient access to clean water for both domestic and personal use.

This project lasted from to , and studied the availability and maintenance of hand pump systems. The study established that centralized maintenance structure was a cause of many problems in hand pump programs, and that maintenance at the village level is best. The VLOM concept was initially applied to hardware, with the following aims: the possibility of maintenance by village workers, having spare parts manufactured within the country to make sure spare parts are available, endurance in the field, and cost effectiveness.

With time, more emphasis was placed on maintenance management. An example of a Bank funded project that highlights many issues of hand pumps is the Mali Rural Supply Project. The project brought approximately rural villages inclined towards periods of drought, and , people access to safe water. The complexity of the pumps is a fundamental problem for all programs of this kind, as well as the quality of the pumps given the heavy demands of a village.


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  • Much attention has been given to the benefits of the use of hand pumps in developing nations, as opposed to more traditional methods. In communities reliant on groundwater, through a borehole or well, the utilization of a bucket and rope system has hygienic issues. The bucket and rope system is not compatible with the use of a cover slab, which can prevent pollution of groundwater.

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    In addition, unwashed hands can contaminate the bucket and rope. Hand pumps avoid these issues and are therefore preferable. However, villagers did not stop using traditional means of gathering water during this project. Bokonon View Profile View Posts. Originally posted by wsc :. The chlorine will kill the germs but you need a water sieve to turn it into water. So if you want a better method than the chlorine route, you can just heat up the water until it becomes steam. Use the steam and route it to water, at a late stage in the game and pipe it through the steam turbine.